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Signal transduction involves biological processes that allow cells to recognize and respond to changes in their environment. Cell receptors can be activated by binding certain extracellular ligands. These binding events trigger a signaling cascade that allows the cell to respond appropriately to the stimulus. Cells may respond to environmental changes by modifying protein and enzyme activity, metabolism or gene expression. Signal transduction is often complex, involving many different protein receptors, enzymes, and secondary messenger molecules such as cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP), calcium, and lipids. The study of signal transduction pathways involves many high purity and specific reagents including inhibitors, antagonists and agonists.