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Thiadiazole is a five-membered ring system containing two nitrogens and one sulfur atom. They occur in nature in four isomeric forms, namely 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 1,2,5-thiadiazole, 1,2,4-thiadiazole, and 1,3,4-thiadiazole. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole isomer of the thiadiazole series and its dihydro derivatives are utilized prominently in several synthetic transformations. The thiadiazole moiety acts as a hydrogen binding domain and two-electron donor system. It also acts as a constrained pharmacophore. The 1,3,4-thiadiazoles are divided into three subclasses namely: (1) aromatic systems which include the neutral thiadiazole, (2) mesoionic systems which are defined as a five membered heterocyclic and are not covalent or polar, and possess a sextet of electrons in association with the five atoms comprising the ring, and (3) non aromatic systems such as the 1,3,4-thiadiazolines and the tetrahydro-1,3,4-thiadiazolidines.
Thiadiazole acts as the bio-isosteric moiety for thiazole moiety in third and fourth generation cephalosporins, and hence can be used in antibiotic preparations. Thiadiazoles are used in many potential drugs and are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. These pharmacological activities include antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antitubercular, antipyretic, anticancer, CNS depressant, antischistosomal, and hypoglycemic. Furthermore, thiadiazoles have found their way into diverse application as oxidation inhibitors, cyanine dyes, and metal complexing agents.