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Thiazole (also known as 1,3-thiazole) is a five-membered heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen. Thiazoles are structurally similar to imidazoles with the thiazole sulfur replaced by nitrogen. Thiazole rings are planar and aromatic, and are characterized by a larger pi-electron delocalization than the corresponding oxazoles and therefore have greater aromaticity. The calculated pi-electron density marks C-5 as the primary site for electrophilic substitution, and C-2 as the site for nucleophilic substitution. Thiazoles and their derivatives have been identified as a vital component of structurally diverse natural products that exhibit a wide variety of biological activities. Additionally, thiazoles are used in peptide research. Thiazole is the core for biologically active natural products as thiamine (vitamin B1), bacitracin, and the penicillins, and in numerous synthetic drugs, dyes, and industrial chemicals.
Thiazolines (also known as 4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole or 4,5-dihydrothiazole) are five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom. Thiazoline exists in three isomeric forms namely 2-thiazoline, 3-thiazoline and 4-thiazoline. Some of the drugs, which act upon the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARy), are thiozoline derivatives. They are used for the treatment of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, mainly for lowering triglycerides and blood sugar.