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Carboxylic acids are any class of organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group [-C(=O)OH]. They are proton donors and form the common type of organic acids. They widely occur in nature and include amino acids, oils or fats derived from plants or animals. They are efficient partners in a variety of chemical reactions (Schmidt reaction, Hunsdiecker reaction, Dakin-West reaction, Arndt-Eistert synthesis, etc.) and are routinely employed in organic synthesis. Carboxylic acids have diverse applications including, but not limited to, the production of polymers, food additives, and pharmaceuticals. Acrylic acid and methacrylic acids are well known precursors of polymers. Terephthalic acid, adipic acid and maleic acid are used extensively in the polymer industry. Acetic acid is a component of vinegar, citric acid has applications in beverages, while propionic acid is a preservative.
Thiocarboxylic acids are any class of organosulfur compounds having the general formula RC(=O)SH, where R is alkyl or aryl group. They are sulfur analogues of carboxylic acids and they exist as a tautomer of RC(=S)OH and RC(=O)SH, of which only RC(=O)SH is observed. Thioacetic acid is a commonly used laboratory reagent. Pyridine-2,6-dicarbothioic acid is a naturally occurring siderophore. Halogenation of thiocarboxylic acid O-silyl esters provides an easier route to acylsulfenyl halides. Thiocarboxylic acids, as a source of sulfur, are used in the preparation of benzo[b]thiophene and benzothiazole derivatives in Ulmann-type reactions. Thiocarboxylic acids are also widely used in the field of nanoparticles and thiocarboxylic acids with chain lengths of 3 and 11 carbons are good substrates to functionalize silver nanoparticles.