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Triazoles are five-membered heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing three nitrogen atoms in the ring. Triazoles exist in two isomeric forms, specifically 1,2,3-triazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles. Due to their high aromatic stabilization, 1,2,3-triazoles are resistant to reduction and oxidation as well as to hydrolysis in acidic and basic conditions. The high dipole moment of 1,2,3-triazoles (~5 D) helps them participate actively in hydrogen bond formation as well as in dipoledipole and pi stacking interactions which improves their solubility in aqueous media and enhances their binding with biological targets.
A number of triazole derivatives possess a broad spectrum of activity as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antineoplastic, antimicrobials, and enzymatic inhibitors. Triazole rings are relatively stable, and triazole linkages can be used in a variety of applications, such as the replacement of the phosphate backbone of DNA.