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Western blotting and ELISA and are analytical techniques used to detect specific proteins in a biological sample. Both techniques rely on immunodetection of an antibody to a specific protein. Western blotting is used to detect a specific target protein out of a complex protein mixture. A protein mixture is separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis before transfer to a membrane. Antibody binding to the target protein on the membrane can then be detected by various methods. Like Western blots, ELISA is used to detect peptides in a mixture. ELISA also allows quantification of the antigen in question. With ELISA and Western blotting, the presence and/or amount of the antigen is determined directly or indirectly by an enzyme (usually horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase)-, biotin- or fluorophore-conjugated antibody. Depending on the substrates used, the conjugated enzymes can be detected by colorimetric, fluorescent or chemiluminescent techniques. Alfa Aesar offers a variety of reagents for Western blotting including enzyme substrates and blocking, transfer and washing buffers.