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Mainly used as an intermediate for medicines, agricultural chemical and organic synthesis. Used as raw material of perfume, modifier and solvent of plastics. It is also employed as an additive of polymer, paints and lubricating oil. Also used as a surfactant and auxiliary for making printing ink, rubber flux and cosmetics(including shampoo).
Joseph J Bozell.; L Moens.; D.C Elliott.; Y Wang.; G.G Neuenscwander.; S.W Fitzpatrick.; R.J Bilski.; J.L Jarnefeld. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2000, 28 (3-4), 227-239.
Jaroslav Horvat.; Branimir Klai?.; Biserka Metelko.; Vitomir Šunji?. Mechanism of levulinic acid formation. Tetrahedron Letters. 1985, 26 (17), 2111-2114.
Alcohols and phenols can be protected as levulinate (Lev) esters. Ester formation has been brought about, e.g. by reaction with an alcohol in the presence of DCC and DMAP: Tetrahedron Lett., 4875 (1976); 23, 2615 (1982). The same references describe facile, selective cleavage by the use of hydrazine hydrate in pyridine/acetic acid. For use of 2-Chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide, A12820, in the formation of Lev esters, see: Tetrahedron Lett., 21, 381 (1980). Alternative cleavage methods include: borohydride in water: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 97, 1614 (1975); MeMgI: benzoate esters unaffected: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 681 (1992); sodium sulfite/ bisulfite under neutral conditions, effective for Lev esters of nucleosides, carbohydrates and steroids: Chem. Lett., 585 (1988). Lev esters have also been prepared using 2-Ethoxy-1-ethoxycarbonyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline, A13724: Tetrahedon Lett., 23, 2615 (1982).
Dichiarazioni di rischio (UE): H302-H314-H318
Harmful if swallowed. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. Causes serious eye damage.
Dichiarazioni precauzionali: P280-P305+P351+P338-P309-P310a
Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF exposed or if you feel unwell: