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Diethyl carbonate is esters, beta-enamino esters, carbamates and unsymmetrical alkyl carbonates. It is an active component of electrolytes used in lithium which is used as a solvent for cellulose ethers, nitro cellulose, natural and synthetic resin and in erythromycin intramuscular injections. It is also used in the synthesis of 3-ethyl-4-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-oxazol-2-one, phenobarbital, pyrethrum batteries.
Carboethoxylates carbanions derived from ketones, nitriles, esters, etc. For examples, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 4, 461 (1963); 5, 198 (1973); 6, 611 (1988). Arylacetic esters are converted to arylmalonic diesters: Org. Prep. Proced. Int., 6, 5 (1974). The dianions of carboxylic acids can be carboethoxylated with diethyl carbonate (or Ethyl chloroformate, L06311), to give monoesters of malonic acids: Tetrahedron Lett., 2721 (1974).
For use as an alkylating agent for alcohols, phenols, thiols, etc., see Dimethyl carbonate, A13104.
1,3-Diols undergo dehydration to give oxetanes; see, e.g.: Tetrahedron Lett., 24, 5571 (1983):
Srilakshmi, M.; Krishna, T. S.; Narendra, K.; Dey, R.; Ratnakar, A. Influence of alkyl group and temperature on excess thermodynamic properties of diethyl carbonate and their binary mixtures at 0.1 MPa. J. Mol. Liq. 2015, 211, 854-867.
Li, F.; Li, H.; Wang, L.; He, P.; Cao, Y. Magnesium oxide nanosheets as effective catalysts for the synthesis of diethyl carbonate from ethyl carbamate and ethanol. Catal. Sci. Technol. 2015, 5 (2), 1021-1034.
Dichiarazioni di rischio (UE): H226-H315-H319-H335
Flammable liquid and vapour. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation.
Dichiarazioni precauzionali: P210-P261-P303+P361+P353-P305+P351+P338-P405-P501a
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.